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Incorporating all art mediums into one cohesive unit of artistic design

The architect Walter Gropius [1883-1969] founded the Bauhaus School of Art in Germany in 1919 with the stated goal of wanting to teach all the crafts, including sculpture, painting, furniture making and design and incorporate them into architecture. His inspiration for this concept came from two easily recognizable sources- William Morris' theory on the 'Arts and Crafts Movement' and Henry van de Velde, who worked in Vaimer before the war. Gropius' most famous quote on the function of the school was -“The final purpose of all the visual artistic mediums is in the building itself”. The school was open until 1933, when the Nazis closed it down, and despite having a very short existence, this school came to influence many individual artists and certainly many artistic groups and movements in the future.

The early years - Learning art the famous Bauhaus School of Art

All the students that were accepted into the school spent their first six months there learning to use the different materials of all these medias, as well as various techniques and artistic tools. The range of courses available at the school were staggering for their diversity, including weaving, mural painting, glass painting, costume design, fine metalwork and woodwork- though architecture was always considered the supreme form of creation, with paintings and sculptures considered the 'decorations' of the buildings, on par with the furniture design. The traditional boundaries between fine art and functional design were blurred into one cohesive unit of creativity. The emphasis was put on handcrafting and cleanly reserved designs that incorporated every element of the building and didn't separate between them.

The later years

In the years 1925-26 the Bauhaus school relocated from Vaimar to Dasau and this shift in location also signaled a shift from the abstract expressionist style that had been there under the influence of such teachers as Kandinsky, and Johannes Itten. Other teachers in the school were the Hungarian painter Lazlo Moholy-Nagy, Lionel Feininger, Paul Klee, Oscar Schlemmer, the Hungarian architect Marcel Breuer, Mies van der Rohe, and the German painter and poet Josef Albers. In Dasau the style pervading the school was more structured and the famous Bauhaus image of functionality was at work, replacing the handcrafted arts with industrial design and use of industrial materials such as glass, chrome and other metals.

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